Total salinity, ion toxicity, sodium chloride and boron, oh my! That’s a lot to take in.
These are the current conditions that almond growers who rely on groundwater irrigation are faced with. As salt concentration goes up the almond the osmotic resistance increases. Essentially, the plant is choking.
Some are trying to develop ion exchange scrubbers to pull the boron out, but an economical way to do it has not yet been discovered. Others have been toying with using reverse osmosis for salt mitigation, until Streamline Systems no one had developed an economically practical system for agricultural purposes.